If you're convicted of a crime, you have the right to appeal the conviction and have a higher court review your trial to ensure that it was conducted fairly.
If you plead guilty to a crime, or are found guilty by the court, the result is a conviction. In other words, you've been found guilty of the criminal charge leveled against you.
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If you've been charged with a crime, you have the right to legal representation. Attorneys often specialize in a certain area of the law and in a specific type of legal practice.
Frequently, a prosecutor may offer to change the charges in a particular case in return for a plea of not 'guilty' or 'no contest.' For the criminal justice system, this means that a case may be quickly processed without the need of an expensive and time-consuming jury trial.
When a defendant is convicted of a crime, it's generally the judge's duty to pronounce sentence. In cases involving capital offenses in most states, the jury decides on the sentence.